Cell Culture Brief History, Importance, and Application: Cell culture is a research method that allows single cells to function as independent units. The technique is used to study how drugs and viruses affect cells. It has been around for more than 100 years. In this article, we’ll talk about how cell culture works and its importance to science. Also, learn about some of the key people and events that contributed to the development of the field.
Table of Contents
What is Cell Culture?
Cell culture is a process that allows single cells to act as independent units
Cell culture involves dividing and growing cells in a liquid medium. There are two basic types of cell culture: stationary suspension cultures and moving monolayer cultures. The first is the most common and involves growing cells in a mechanically stirred vessel. This type of culture is the most efficient in terms of labor, space, and media. It also works best for large amounts of cells.
Brief History of Cell Culture!
Cell culture was first used in the early twentieth century for research purposes. The main goal of this technique was to study normal physiological processes in single cells. Bacteria double in as little as thirty minutes, whereas animal cells need up to 18 to 24 hours to double. This makes animal cell culture prone to contamination and it wasn’t until the 1950s that cell culture became routine in the laboratory.
Cell culture became increasingly important for the development of viral vaccines. In the 1940s, major polio epidemics led to a great push toward developing a vaccine. In 1949, human cells cultured with poliovirus were discovered to grow and produce a commercially viable vaccine.
Cell culture is also used for a variety of applications. In the laboratory, a batch of cloned cells can be used to create a reliable and consistent sample. However, continuous growth can lead to changes in cell characteristics. This is because cells adapt to various conditions in the culture environment, including changes in temperature and salt concentration.
The first step is to prepare the culture medium. You will need trypsin-EDTA solution and balanced salt solution. The growth medium should be at a temperature appropriate for the cell line you are using. In general, 37degC is the ideal temperature. However, sensitive cells may need to be maintained at 4degC or higher.
Read Post: Complete Guide for Cell Culture
Cell Culture Medium History
Cell culture is a tool for scientists to optimize the production of cells, viruses, and viral vectors. Cells are cultured in a biocompatible environment, known as the culture medium. The demand for a culture medium emerged in 1882 when the first tissue preservation experiment was conducted.
Sydney Ringer developed Ringer’s solution, a balanced salt solution that preserved tissue with physiological pH and osmolality levels. Since then, many synthetic solutions have been developed. In 1907, embryologist Ross Harrison leveraged natural media by developing a lymph platform.
Application of Cell Culture
Cell culture is a technique that allows scientists to study the effects of drugs and viruses on a variety of cell types. Its use in research is widespread, and has several advantages over other models. For instance, genetically defined cell lines make data analysis simpler.
However, the results obtained from specific cellular systems may not be representative of the effects of a large number of cell types. This is because specific cellular systems have distinct physiological requirements, such as growth factors and growth promoting substances, or events related to apoptosis and programmed cell death. Cell cultures also help researchers evaluate the effects of potential pharmaceutical compounds and contaminants.
Most Popular Cell Lines
One of the most widely used cell lines is the human HEK293T cell line. This cell line expresses functionally normal detoxification enzymes and is useful for studying the metabolism and toxicity of drugs and viruses. The cell line is also well-suited to studying virus adsorption and entry into host cells.
Effects of drugs and viruses on cells
Cell culture is the most common tool for studying the effects of drugs and viruses on cells. These are famous method for in vitro drug and virus testing, and can help scientists understand the role of drugs and viruses in the development of cancer. Further, it is also useful to identify new ways to study how drugs and viruses interact with cells and tissues.
Effects of viruses and drugs on cancer cells
Cell culture is also useful for studying the effects of viruses and drugs on cancer cells. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus belonging to the family Hepadnaviridae. Current antiviral drugs are unable to completely eradicate the virus in the human body. Thus, an active cell culture system that can support HBV infection is essential for understanding the virus and developing effective therapeutic drugs.
Cell culture is also an effective means of studying the interaction between a virus and its host cells. However, it is not without its disadvantages. A reproducible and adapted system is required for accurate studies of the HBV-host cell relationship. Researchers have attempted to develop an in vitro system that is suitable for this purpose. One cell culture system that has proven to be effective in this field is primary human adult hepatocytes. This cell line was obtained through a two-step perfusion of liver tissue.
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